The Expert’s Guide to Software Testing

The active adoption of digital technologies into various spheres of life led to a rapid growth in the demand for software. This solution provides many advantages and helps to optimise work processes. However, there is another side to using programs. Every user wants to be sure that they are reliable and can work without interruption for a long period.

Security is also an important aspect. To ensure that the software meets these criteria, it must be tested. This procedure requires appropriate knowledge and skills. That is why software testing should be trusted only by professionals.

They develop a testing strategy and plan the process taking into account all the specifics of the project. If you want to know how it is done, then we suggest you study the best software testing guide for 2023.

What does software testing cover?

Everyone who plans to engage in software testing should understand what it is and what it includes. Let’s start with the fact that software is a fairly complex product that requires great attention to every detail. He has a big responsibility. Even a small glitch can cause serious problems. That is why the software is thoroughly tested.

Software testing is a set of actions aimed at analysing individual components or the system as a whole. The evaluation of each component is important to understand whether the software will be secure and how functional it will be.

With the help of a comprehensive assessment, you can also understand how the created software satisfies the initially specified requirements. A full assessment of compliance with the issued terms of reference is carried out. In addition, it can be used to understand how the software can affect customer satisfaction with the finished product and the convenience for further work of developers.

According to HackerRank, the most common mistake is the introduction of untested and invalid sections of code. This causes about 60% of all failures. Also, many try to use a remote database, and this is a big mistake. It always pops up during testing. Whatever the defect, it always harms the system and affects all its levels of organization.

With the help of product testing, it is possible to improve functionality, prevent errors, defects and shortcomings in the final product, and also make the software as ideal as possible.

Agile Testing Life Cycle

Why is software testing important?

When you have created something and released it to the masses, there is hope to get a million positive reviews. But what if almost everyone who bought a product from you is dissatisfied with it. It turns out that your product has a lot of bugs. And the declared functionality does not correspond to reality. The result is that people demand a refund for a low-quality product, your name is (at the moment) given up, and the money is lost. That’s to prevent this and created testing. But due to the complexity of the entire product called software, it needs to be tested at all levels of the organisation. Testing has a number of additional benefits:

  • Clear understanding of compliance. It is important for users that a digital product be functional and convenient. This is viewed from the angle of many factors that need to be checked. As a result, you will have an understanding of “Will users like my product?”.
  • Prevention of large-scale failures and problems. No matter how careful the development of a software product is, errors may still occur during its use. If they are not detected and eliminated in time, they can lead to serious problems in work processes.
  • Reducing the risk of downtime. Any problem or bug in the Software can cause the activity of a certain department or the entire organization to be suspended. For businesses, this automatically means lost profits. To minimize these risks, you should contact an experienced tester.

Like it or not, testing is an integral part of creating any product. But when it comes to complex software, without it, you won’t even be able to bring the project to the middle.

Basic Testing Principles

This process is quite complex and multi-stage. To make it as effective as possible, testers follow general principles.

  • The main purpose of the procedure is to detect defects and errors. Specialists can perform various types of testing. They may differ in terms of methods, objects, and performance features. However, all varieties have a single purpose – to identify failures, gaps, or weak points in finished products.
  • The need for timely testing.  Under such conditions, it is possible to detect failures in time and eliminate them at the early stages of using the finished Software.
  • The impossibility of conducting complex tests. It is not always possible to implement many scenarios at once.
  • Clustering found problems. Experts point out that their prevailing majority is found in one or more modules.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to find new defects during re-testing, and during any testing, it is necessary to take into account the features of specific solutions.  This indicates the importance of constantly assessing the existing test and introducing adjustments to it, according to the characteristics of the project. They should also pay attention to limitations, requirements, features of operation, purpose, and other important factors.

How is software testing done?

Most users are sure that testing is the final stage of development when everything has already been worked out and adjusted. That it only allows you to check the finished software before launch and be able to eliminate defects before the start of operation. But it is not so. Testing is necessary at different stages of the product organisation. The procedure is carried out in several stages:

  • Analysis: The initial stage, which involves the collection of data and a thorough analysis of the requirements for the final product. Both functional and non-functional requirements are assessed.
  • Create a test plan: Determining the scope of work and drawing up a plan for the implementation of stages. This means developing a strategy. It must be adapted to the specifics of the project. It defines the necessary tools, the stages of the work, the role of each specialist in the team, the terms, as well as the costs and risks associated with this process.
  • Formation of test cases: At this stage, immediate actions are performed. Specialists create test cases. Each of them should be exhaustive. This means that expected results, all conditions, procedures, and all inputs are considered. In addition, at this stage, a team of specialists prepares a matrix for tracking requirements and also prepares test data.
  • Making settings: Now it is necessary to adapt the environmental conditions to the specifics of the project. For this stage, specialists use special tools and digital solutions. In some cases, you need to connect a separate test server.
  • Implementation: When specialists have prepared everything necessary to perform the tests, they proceed to direct actions. Specialists enter the obtained parameters into a special table and compare them with the expected results.

The final stage is the closing of test cases. Based on the results of the procedure, reporting documentation is created, which describes all stages and results in detail.


Testing Life Cycle

What types of testing are used for software?

Testers use various methods and methods to test programs for bugs and crashes. Let’s consider the main ones.

Automated program testing

The most popular testing method is automated. It is performed automatically, according to a pre-prepared test. This is the most efficient method. When using it, certain tools are used that have a number of advantages. They speed up processes, which positively affects efficiency. If you need high quality tests and the process itself, you cannot do without automated testing.

In any job, high productivity will be important. And today it is achieved through total automation. Yes, the cost of such a check is higher. But the whole project will be completed faster, precisely due to automatic testing.

Indeed, in the long run, such an approach, on the contrary, will lead to savings in the budget for the project. In addition, in this case, the possibility of making mistakes is excluded, because the main human factor of “carelessness” is completely excluded. Regardless of the amount of work due to automation, an ideal tool in terms of efficiency is obtained. No manual miscalculations, long fees and fatigue factor – only a quick and error-free end result.

There are several types of automated testing

API testing

A variation that is used to evaluate the application programming interface of an API and is appropriately called API testing. This is an important component, so its evaluation is essential. It is required to understand whether it meets the requirements. It is worth noting that the assessment does not imply checking the interface and usability.

When scoring is done, requests need to be made directly to the API. After that, each evaluate and prescribe in the result. If errors or other problems are found, they need to be corrected. This type of check should not be skipped, otherwise there is a chance that the software will not work properly.

Unit testing

This view is aimed at testing software units or components at different levels of the organisation. All this is necessary to understand how the current stage of development corresponds to the terms of reference. This is extremely important when creating software, because. it is possible to find errors even at the early stages of the implementation of its life cycle, which eliminates further problems.

Automated regression testing

This method is quite common. It is based on repetition. The main advantage of the tool is its ability to improve the final product. And this is done by identifying all kinds of problems that can be with the code. Along with this, the method has a drawback – high cost and the risk of creating your own errors.

Manual testing

This is the second main testing method. It has many differences from automated. But the main thing that distinguishes the manual look is that absolutely all processes are carried out manually. That is, the creation of cases, the testing itself, reports and all their components, the specialist produces everything independently.

With the help of manual testing, you can also analyse all the performance indicators of the software at different levels of its organisation. But it will take more time. In addition, there will be a risk of making mistakes, due to the presence of the human factor.

It is especially effective to use both manual and automated methods in the work. There are 2 main types of manual verification.

Regression Testing

This method is designed to detect possible negative changes in the program’s functions. During its implementation, an update is introduced into the software, after which its work is evaluated. The method helps to determine whether these changes caused errors or other negative consequences.

The advantage is that the specialist does not need to write a test from scratch each time. He can use those that were compiled earlier. Of course, they will have to be slightly changed, adapted for updates, or the product itself. But it will require less effort and resource costs.

In general, regression testing is universal, but it requires a lot of time.

Exploratory (research) testing

This is a convenient verification option in which all interaction with the software is carried out without scripts. The tester simply uses his knowledge, experience and creativity in his work. There are no usual predetermined steps. Instead, an exploratory approach allows the tester to explore freely. It is considered by many to be more of a major test of choice.

The tester has the ability to make real-time decisions about the next steps. At the same time, based on the result of previous tests and their observations. This allows you to more effectively explore different aspects of the application. And also to discover problems that could be missed if rigidly following a predetermined plan.

What other methods are used in the process of testing programs?

Currently, many programs are available to users, which differ in functionality, structure, purpose, and other features. In order to be able to conduct a qualitative assessment of the performance of all components of such products, experts develop many methods. In practice, in addition to the varieties listed above, there are other types of verification.

Crowd sourced testing

Based on the name, it is immediately clear what exactly distinguishes this type of testing. That’s right, several specialists are involved in working with it at once. They get the necessary permissions and accesses and perform certain parts of the job. Their work is carried out according to the standard scheme: search for bugs and errors, side effects, and failures.

All received information and actions are documented in the report. The main task of this type is to increase the efficiency of testing by involving a whole team of specialists at once. After all, the knowledge and skills of many experienced specialists are combined in the process.

Beta testing

This is another type of software functionality check, which is significantly different from the previous methods.  Its main difference is that all actions are performed by the users themselves, because. all tests are performed in a real environment. It is ideal for checking other checks. It is used at the very end when everything is already working smoothly and without bugs. 

Beta versions of programs mustn’t be released for all users, but only for a certain group. Those who enter it are invited to leave feedback and share their thoughts about the functionality and features of using the product. This information is further used by specialists to improve the software.

Internal testing

This is a type of inspection that is performed directly by full-time specialists. That is, the company does not seek help from professionals from other organizations.

The advantage of this method is an excellent knowledge of the company’s product and work processes. Along with this, this method also has certain disadvantages. 

Among them is the difficulty of scaling, limited resources, and the need to allocate funds for the salaries of specialists.

Outsourced testing

And this is the complete opposite of the internal type. This means that specialists from third-party companies are involved in the procedure. That is, the company hires individual specialists for testing or orders services from an independent organisation. Such a solution has many advantages. Including:

  • Obtaining qualified assistance
  • Saving money
  • High efficiency
  • Speed

The main problem associated with outsourcing remains the very concept of outsourcing. Unfortunately, this format implies that the specialist is poorly informed about the company’s work. But if you give time to specialists, they will be able to understand and prepare.

Compatibility testing

Software is often adapted to work in different environments, so sometimes it is necessary to test their functionality in different conditions.

We are talking about the software, network, equipment, etc. It is for these purposes that the compatibility assessment is used. Its main advantage is the ability to improve the product. So it will fully meet the needs of users.

During testing, they check the operation of the software on different platforms. As a result, the specialist understands how everything functions in different conditions, where there are shortcomings, and how the existing product meets the requirements. But it is expensive and takes a lot of time. 

Accessibility Testing

It is very important to put yourself in the other person’s shoes. This is especially true for persons with disabilities. Specialists should evaluate how convenient it will be to use the software for this category of people. With the help of the test, it is possible to evaluate whether the product is suitable for people with hearing or visual impairments, as well as for people with motor skills and learning disabilities.

Functional testing

Before launching any software solution, developers want to make sure it is productive. This type of testing is specifically designed to evaluate the performance of certain functions and actions. It is immediately focused on interaction with the software of real users.


It is the process of checking a software interface for usability, aesthetics, and design fit. It is important to understand how well it works and whether it causes user experience issues. Everything is checked, from icon size to readability. How well the colors and other nuances are chosen.

Load testing

And this is the process of checking the performance and stability of software under load. Most often, the load is close to the maximum or exceeds it. The tester creates scenarios that simulate high loads on the application in order to identify its weaknesses. And also to understand how the system handles a large number of users or requests.

Non-functional testing

The process involves checking aspects of the software that are not directly related to its main functionality. These include performance, security, compatibility, reliability, and other non-functional characteristics. The tester checks how well the application meets the requirements associated with these characteristics and identifies problems that may arise in real use.

Localisation testing

When creating software products, developers often consider several languages and cultures at once. Accordingly, they create adapted versions for each of them. Localisation testing helps to check whether such versions function correctly and whether they are comfortable to use for representatives of certain cultures.


Software testing is a necessary component that allows you to improve any product and keep it running smoothly for a long period. Currently, such checks can be performed by specialists working with company personnel or in third-party organisations. They can perform testing in different ways. We have looked at many types. Now you will know what testing is, as well as where and what type of it should be used.

Sudeep Bhatnagar
Co-founder & Director of Business
Sudeep Bhatnagar

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